Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a medical complication. In this condition, large volume of urine though severely dilutes is passed on. The passing of urine also does not get reduced with the reduced intake of fluid like water. Although the term, diabetes insipidus, gives an impression that it is related to sugar diabetes - type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes - in fact, the disorder shares the word diabetes, " you may immediately assume the condition is related to what's commonly known as "sugar" diabetes, Diabetes Insipidus is unrelated to these two types of diabetes. Mayo Clinic describes diabetes Insipidusor in these words: "Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disorder characterized by intense thirst and by the excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). In most cases, it's the result of your body not properly producing, storing or releasing a hormone that increases water absorption by your kidneys and decreases urine flow. This form of diabetes insipidus is often called central diabetes insipidus, or sometimes neurogenic diabetes insipidus."
Signs and symptomsEdit
Two most prominent signs of Diabetes insipidus is a continuous feeling of extreme thirst, and passing of excessive dilute urine. While a normal healthy person passes about 1.5 to 2.5 liters of urine per day, a person with diabetes insipidus may pass urine ranging from 2.5 liters to 25 liters of urine per day. Sometimes, the person has to get up in the night to pass urine.
The signs and symptoms of diabetes Insipidus in infants and young children having diabetes insipidus may include crying and being fussy without any obvious reason; wetting the diapers very frequently; dry skin; and fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
The human body has a system of regulating fluid. The complication of diabetes insipidus occurs when the body's system to regulate fluid (excess by excretion and less by reducing excretion) gets impaired due to certain reasons. Depending on the type of disruption, different forms of diabetes insipidus may occur:
- Central Diabetes Insipidus (Central DI)
- Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (Nephrogenic DI)
- Gestational Diabetes Insipidus (Gestational DI)
One of the major complication of diabetes insipidus is dehydration (loss of liquid in the body) of the body due to excessive excretion of urine. Inadequate fluid (water) in the body may result into many other complications including dry mouth, weight loss, sunken appearance of the eyes, fever and headache or both, low blood pressure (called hypotension in medical term) and rapid heart beat.
Diabetes insipidus can also cause an imbalance of minerals in the body, termed electrolyte imbalance medically. Minerals like sodium, potassium and calcium present in the blood play significant role in maintaining electrolyte balance of the body - the balance of fluids in the body. Electrolyte imbalance results into a host of ailments including headache, fatigue, irritability and muscle pains.