Introduction and History
The word diabetes comes from the Greek word that means to “go through” and mellitus comes from the Latin word “sweet”. This word can be traced back to first century AD. It was described by a person of having a chronic longing for their thirst be quenched. They also described their urine of having a distinct sweet smell. There was no treatment for diabetes until 1922 where two men by the name of Banting and Best discovered insulin. In today’s term diabetes is disorder in where carbohydrates, protein, and fats have a problem metabolizing because either the pancreas which produces insulin does not produce enough or that cells do not respond to the affects of insulin.
The American Diabetres Association estimates that 20.8 million people in the United States have diabetes -- 7% of the total population. An estimated 14.6 million people have been diagnosied with diabetes, unfortunately 6.2 million are unaware that they have the disease.
Although diabetes mellitus is a disorder regarding insulin, it is not a single disease. A revised classification developed in 1997 by the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus divides diabetes into four clinical classes.
There are several types of diabetes mellitus:
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
- Gestational diabetes
- Other specific types , which occur secondary to other conditions (ex. Cushing Syndrome, Acromegaly, and Pancreatitis)
Early symptoms of diabetes can include:
- Frequent urination (Polyuria) and thirst (Polydipsia): The increased glucose in a diabetic person's urine draws water out of the blood; this increases the need to urinate, and therefore increases thirst. The urine draws excessive glucose and ketones out of the body.
- Fatigue: When the glucose/insulin system is functioning properly, insulin opens up muscle cells and allows glucose to enter, providing the cells with fuel. When this system breaks down, the muscles don't have the fuel that they need to work or rebuild themselves.
- Weight loss: Insulin builds muscle tissue. When insulin isn't functioning properly in the body, the person can lose muscle tone and drop in weight.
- Persistent hunger: Without insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells, so while there is excessive glucose in the blood, the cells are literally starving.
- Persistent vaginal infection: A higher level of glucose in vaginal fluids can encourage bacteria to thrive. These infections can advance through the urinary tract to the bladder and even the kidneys.
Symptoms can be a great basis to know if you are diabetic or not but, there are also many ways to try. Having a test using ELISA kit is one of the best thing to do. It can identify anti bodies as well as many substances inside one's body. Many have been using this because of its accuracy.
- A family history of diabetes
- Ethnicity: Type 2 diabetes is more common is African-Americans, Latinos, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans.
- Obesity for type 2 diabetes
- Gestation diabetes or having had a baby weighing over 9 pounds for type 2 diabetes.
- Sedantary lifestyle - low or no physical activity
If diabetes is not managed properly means; if the blood sugar is not controlled within nominal level for prolong period can cause many complications called as diabetes complications.But diabetes complications can be avoided by proper diabetes managment.
Major complications of Diabetes mellitus include:
- Nerve damage
- Diabetic ketoacidosis:
- Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma:
- Eye problems
- Vascular disease
- Macrovascular disease
- Kidney problems
- Erectile dysfunction
There may arise many other complications on account of diabetes as the condition affects all the parts of the body.